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The History of the Horner Farm

John Horner

The Horner Farm has been in continuous ownership of the Horner family for over 200 years. It was deeded off from the 43,500 acres Manor of Maske, a large tract of land set aside in the Province of Pennsylvania for the use of the heirs of William Penn. It has been a working and producing farm for over two centuries and continues as such today. It was improved first with an historic house in 1819 which has sheltered the Horner family since that time, and an historic barn erected in 1840, which exists today for the same purposes for which it was constructed 165 years ago. It is significant under Criteria "A" of the National Register for association with early nineteenth to mid-twentieth century agricultural practices in Adams Co., Pa. It demonstrates a durability and love of the land that is the heritage of Pennsylvania agricultural It is also eligible under Criteria "C" for architecture as an example of typical 19th century Adams Co. farmhouse architecture. The house, outbuildings and rural landscape are significant in Adams County's agricultural and architectural history. The period of significance therefore begins with the purchase of the property by the Horners in 1802 until the 1950's when J. Bush Horner willed the property in a life estate to his son, John B. Horner.

A Brief History of Agricultural In Adams County

Until the formation of Adams County in 1800, the area was a part of York County. York County's first farmers were the Susquehannock Indians, a group that had broken off from the Iriquois League of the Five Nations in northeastern United States. By 1665 these Native Americans were cultivating corn, squash, beans and other crops. In 1736, the chiefs of the Susquehannocks sold their lands adjoining the Susquehanna River to the Penn family, a prominent English Quaker family who owned the majority of the territory that would become the Eastern part of the State of Pennsylvania.

In the south central area of what was then known as western York County, the Penns decided to lay out a reserve of land for themselves in called "Manor of Maske". This was one of a number of large tracts of land set aside by the Penns for the use of their heirs, another being Springettsbury in York County. The boundaries for Manor of Maske were not actually surveyed until 1766 at which point the Manor contained 43,500 acres. The Horner Farm is located on what was the south central part of the Manor of Maske.

Three major groups of pioneers moved into what in now Adams County during the middle third of the 18th century. They were the English, Scots-Irish and Germans. The majority of the Germans took up lands in the southern and eastern parts of the County, while the Scots-Irish tended to prefer the northern and western sections. The English, less populous than the other groups, were scattered around the County. The Horners had gone to Scotland, no doubt because of religious persecution in England, where they came under the influence of the Presbyterian persuasion, then later to Northern Ireland where they joined tens of thousands of immigrants to this country in the middle 1700's. They grew crops they were familiar with in the old country as well as new crops they were introduced to in their new country.

The area now comprising Adams County was at that time the western part of York County. Because their inhabitants had so far to travel to reach their County seat, they petitioned the State of Pennsylvania to form a new county and Adams County came into being from the date of 22 January 1800. The majority of the population of Adams County in the 18th and 19th centuries was involved in farming or farm-related industries. When the Horners purchased land in Cumberland Township in 1802, it was still in a somewhat undeveloped state. The early settlers had two big jobs to do in order to prepare their land for farming; clear the trees and pick up the rocks. Trees were used for constructing frame buildings, for firewood or just to gather together and burn. Stones were utilized to build roads, construct stone walls and pile in long rows horizontally for the confinement of livestock. Stones that could be easily picked up were hauled away. Those too large to be easily handled were merely farmed around. To this day, land is still being cleared of trees and brush, and to this day one can go into a newly plowed or cultivated field and pick up a load of rocks. When a disc/harrow is used for cultivation, there is a noticeable "ping" when one of the discs strikes a rock. Apparently the procedure of clearing trees and picking up rocks will never end.

Crops grown in the 18th and 19th century farms might include: wheat, rye, oats, barley, potatoes and buckwheat. Indians introduced farmers to new crops such as squash, pumpkins, lima beans, sweet potatoes, etc. Corn, or maize as the Indians called it, became a mainstay as a food for both humans and animals. Timothy and clover (and later alfalfa) hay were grown to feed livestock and methods were devised for the farmers to extract the seed from these forage crops to sow in new fields. Fruit grown might include: peaches, apples, cherries, pears and plums. Nearly every farm had an "orchard". Most farmers raised poultry (chickens, turkeys, guineas, ducks, and geese) and many also raised hogs, cattle of all kinds, and sometimes sheep and goats. Horses, mules and donkeys (even oxen early on) were utilized for pulling farm implements and the ever present domestic animals, dogs and cats, kept down the rat, mouse and ground hog populations.

In the late 19th century, it was discovered that the sloping ground of the South Mountain foothills provided an ideal place to grow fruit commercially and so a whole new phase of Adams County agriculture came into being and remains the County's most important agricultural endeavor. This essentially divided the County into two Counties agriculturally, with almost the entire north-western part devoted to growing apples, peaches, sweet and sour cherries, plums and nectarines, while the southern and eastern portions of rolling farmland were devoted to crops and animals.

Not many farms in Adams County during the 18th and 19h centuries were larger than 300 acres. Quite often early settlers would acquire immense tracts of land (the Horners owned 600 acres in Mt. Joy Township,1760, and later 440 acres in Cumberland,1802), but these would be fairly quickly reduced in size through inheritance divisions and other sales. Most of the farmers were engaged in general farming, raising a variety of crops and animals to support their own families as well as one or two cash crops. By the 1920's, the dairy industry was firmly established in south central Adams County and almost every farm had a small milking herd. The idea of separating cream from the milk for the purpose of making butter, cheese and other dairy products now gave way to the idea of selling whole milk to a milk processing plant. Thus creameries became an important part of the local economy. The tradition of self-sufficient family-oriented farms continued until the 1930's and 40's. At that time the trend began to change to larger, less family-oriented and more specialized farms. Today, Mason Dixon Farms, immediately to the west of the Horner Farm boasts a dairy herd of 2200 cows and farms approximately 3000 acres. New barns are under construction for the purpose of milking the cows with robots! Way-brite Farms, immediately to the east of the Horner Farm now comprises what was at one time 51/2 farms, totaling over 700 acres as well as 2 rented farms (including the Horner Farm). Sadly, the small dairy herd is now almost a thing of the past.

An important industry from the beginning was milling and working mills dotted the countryside, although of necessity they had to be located near streams as they were water-powered. There were as many as 82 mills in Adams County as one time. Most farmers took their wheat to a mill to be ground into flour for the baking of their own bread. Likewise, they took their dried corn to a mill to be ground into corn meal for a whole line of other hearty pastry products. These were gradually replaced with "baker's bread", and corn meal which could be purchased at a country store. There were also saw, plaster and oil mills.

Although tobacco was never extensively grown in Adams County, there was at one time a noticeable cigar making enterprise in the County, which began as a cottage industry and even today there remains in McSherrystown, the only cigar making facility in the country where cigars are still hand rolled.

The reasons for Adams County's agricultural prosperity were explained in a 1904 publication titled, "Soil Survey of Adams County, Pa., by Henry Wilder and H. L. Belden. Situated on the Mason Dixon Line, Adams County has a moderate climate and escapes the temperature extremes of both the north and the south. Crops are seldom injured either by late frost in the spring or early frost in the fall. The predominant soil type in Adams County (and this includes the Horner Farm) is Penn shale loam(29.3 % of 100,000 acres). The surface soil of the Penn shale loam consists of dark indian-red loam from 8 to 10 inches deep. This material is generally uniform in texture and its slight variations are due chiefly to the effects of washings to which the type in some degree is susceptible. The subsoil consists of indian-red loam. silty loam, clay loam or loam grading into clay loam. The depth of this subsoil is most variable, as it always rests upon the shale rock from which it is derived, and the distance of this rock from the surface depends largely on the local topography. When level areas of considerable size occur the soil is often 3 feet deep, and at the foot of slopes it is usually deeper than that, but wherever the surface is very much broken it is seldom possible to bore below 12 to 18 inches, except in the hollows and along the base of slopes. The drainage of the Penn shale loam depends entirely upon the topography, because the underlying beds of rock prevent the downward percolation of water to any great depth below the surface. This fact determines in great measure the crop yields and the consequent value of the soil, for its producing power depends largely upon the caprice of the seasons. Penn shale loam is at the mercy of seasons that are too wet or too dry. In wet years, considerable areas are wet and clammy because the moisture can escape only in a lateral direction. The land suffers even worse from drought because the shallow subsoil can retain but a small reserve supply of moisture and when this becomes exhausted crops must succumb. In seasons with a normal amount of rainfall, evenly distributed, the Penn shale loam is a safe soil and good crops are produced. In 1904, the average yield of wheat was 15 bushels, oats, 30 bushels, shelled corn, 25 bushels and hay. 11/2 tons per acre. Needless to say, today's yields greatly exceed these miniscule amounts.

In the first three decades of the 20th century, the business of farming in Adams County became more efficient with less effort as horse and mule power was replaced with mechanized (usually tractors) farm equipment, nevertheless, the number of farms in Adams County began to decline as farmers were beset by more governmental intrusion, lower profits and higher costs for fuel and labor. The cost of producing and maintaining a cow, for example, in a herd of 12 milking cows, became prohibitive whereas if the herd size could be doubled or tripled, the cost per cow would be somewhat less. This led to the idea of more acres, larger herds and larger and more sophisticated farm equipment, the ultimate being the Mason Dixon enterprise already alluded to.

Agriculture has been replaced by agri-business and small milking herds by cow factories. The Horner Farm, although a part of one of these conglomerates, remains an oasis in the dessert of agri-businesses, an island in the ocean of animal and crop factories, and well deserves to remain as an example of agriculture as it was once known with cattle on pasture; hay, straw and equipment in the bank barn and a regular crop rotation in small fields.

History of the Horner Farm

Two brothers, Robert and David Horner, emigrated from County Antrim, Ireland about 1760 and settled on 600 acres in Mt Joy Township (then York, now Adams County, Pennsylvania), land granted to them by the heirs of William Penn. In 1802, David's son, Alexander, purchased 440 acres in adjoining Cumberland Township. He was married and the father of six children when his wife died. He remarried a widow with two daughters from a previous marriage and proceeded to rear another family of four and they all(2 adults and 12 children) lived in a 2-room cabin with loft down the hill from where the main house would be located. This site was chosen because it was near a never-failing spring.

Family deeds trace the property back to 1765, however it was first deeded around 1741, to one James Hall (see Chain of Title), at the beginning of the break up of the Manor of Maske. It is known from one of the deeds that the southern boundary of the land was the temporary line between Pennsylvania and Maryland prior to the establishment of the Mason Dixon line in 1766-67. The Horners represented thousands of emigrants who migrated from Ireland and Scotland in the 18th century to eastern states.

As the Alexander Horner's prospered, they envisioned a larger house up the hill. The Horners may have assisted in the construction of the house, indeed, they may have supplied much of the labor. The house was completed in 1819. They chose a Federal style with Georgian influences, with the brick fired on the property and frame pieces no doubt cut from trees on the farm. As more land was cleared and more tillable land became available, the Horner family required as larger barn and so a new Pennsylvania bank barn was completed in 1840. According to Horner oral tradition, the builders already knew there were barns of 100 feet in length in the area. Wanting their barn to be the longest, they altered the plans to make the barn 100 feet, six inches long!

Meanwhile, in an estate settlement in 1838, The land was conveyed to three Horner heirs. George Washington Horner eventually elected to leave the area for West Virginia, and thus sold off his share of the inheritance deemed to be about 150 acres, with David W. Horner and Winfield G. Horner occupying the residual. David Horner eventually bought out his brother's share and became sole owner of the property.

It is not known, specifically, what crops and livestock were grown on the Horner Farm during the first fifty years of its existence. An Agricultural Census of 1850 showed that David Horner had 200 acres of improved land and 100 acres of unimproved land with a cash value of $8,400, as well as a cash value of $400 for implements and farm machinery. He also owned 5 horses, 5 milk cows, 7 other cattle and 14 swine for a total livestock value of $440. Also listed were 700 bushels of wheat, 300 bushels of corn, 350 bushels of oats, 15 bushels of Irish potatoes, 10 bushels of buckwheat, and 400 lbs of butter. Also 29 tons of hay, 10 bushels of clover seed, 2 bushels of other grass seed plus 40 lbs. of beeswax and honey, and a value of $200 for slaughtered animals

An Agriculture Census of 1860 revealed that David Horner now had 250 acres of improved land, 150 acres of unimproved land (it is not known at this time how he acquired the additional 100 acres since 1850) for a total land value of $13,000, as well as a value of $350 for implements and farm machinery. He now owned 9 horses, 6 milk cows, 12 other cattle, 21 swine and 28 sheep for a total livestock value of $978. Crops included 600 bushels of wheat, 500 bushels of corn, 800 bushels of oats, 12 bushels of Irish potatoes, 50 bushels of buckwheat and 150 bushels of rye. The census also listed 400 lbs. of butter, 60 tons of hay, 25 bushels of clover seed, 2 bushels of other grass seed, 50 lbs of beeswax and honey, 140 lbs. of wool and a value of $400 for animals slaughtered.

A later Agricultural Census of 1870 tallied for David Horner 250 acres of improved land and 57 acres of unimproved land for a total cash value of $18,000 and a value of $1,000 for implements and farm machinery. Livestock included 7 horses, 7 milk cows, 10 other cattle, and 40 sheep for a total livestock value of $1,840. Grain listed was 1,200 bushels of wheat, 800 bushels of corn, 600 bushels of oats and 20 bushels of Irish potatoes. Butter was listed as 410 lbs., hay was 80 tons, clover seed, 30 bushels, and value of slaughtered animals, $400. A new category in the 1870 census labeled Estimated Value of All Farm Products, Cost(?), Livestock Including (remainder unreadable) of $4,275.

The census figures indicated a steady increase in most categories with the value of the land escalating from $8,400 in 1850 to $13,000 in 1860 to $18,000 in 1870. Sheep were added between 1850 and 1860 and rye was dropped between 1860 and 1870.

Again in 1888, the remainder of the land was divided between two sons, David W. Horner, Jr. and Theodore B. Horner. A new set of farm buildings had been erected on the northern part of the property and the farm was operated as essentially two farms. Theodore B. Horner decided to move his family west and so sold his farm to the Luckenbaugh family in the early 1900's. This left a residue of 137 acres in the "home place".

A Sale Bill in the possession of the present owner reads as follows: "Public Sale of valuable real estate on Thursday, 20th of September, 1888, a tract of land in Cumberland Township, Adams County, on the public road leading from Moritz's Schoolhouse to Taneytown, close to Hoffman's Mill containing 288 acres, 99 perches, more or less, improved with two, two-story dwelling houses, one having a two-story back building, 2 bank barns, 2 wagon sheds, 2 hog pens, 2 summer houses, 2 smoke houses, blacksmith shop and other out buildings, a good well of water at each house and at each barn, cistern, spring of water and running water through the fields, Marsh Creek running through one corner of the farm, two apple orchards and a variety of other fruit such a speeches, pears, grapes, etc. This tract is under good fencing and is in a good state of cultivation, convenient to churches, schools and mills. This tract will be sold together or divided as follows; No. 1, containing 121 acres and 128 perches, more or less, with set of buildings, No. 2, containing 127 acres, more or less, with set of buildings, No. 3, containing 26 acres and 142 perches of woodland covered with good white oak, hickory and black oak timber, No. 4, containing 9 acres and 8 perches, more or less, of woodland covered with good white oak, hickory and black oak timber and No. 5 consisting of 7 acres and 138 perches, more or less, of woodland covered with good white oak, hickory and black oak timber. Sale will commence at 1 o'clock. PM, when terms will be made known by Theodore B. Horner, David W. Horner, Administrators. David W. Horner purchased Tracts No. 1, 4 and 5 and Theodore B. Horner, tracts 2 and 3 and the Horner farm became two farms, each with its own set of accoutrements. Theodore B. Horner decided to move his family west and so sold his farm to the Luckenbaugh family in the early 1900's.

Another Sale Bill in the possession of the present owner reads: "Public Sale, Tuesday March 6, 1917. The undersigned widow, children and heirs-in-law of David W. Horner, late of Cumberland Township, Adams County, deceased, desiring to finally close the estate of said decedent will sell on the above date, at the residence of the said decedent in Cumberland Township, on the public road leading from Harney to Rothhaupt's Mill, about three miles from the former place and 1 mile from the latter, the following personal property to wit; 9 head of horses, colts and mules, 10 head of cattle, wagons and farm machinery, Osborne binder, 7-foot cut, in good condition, harrow and roller combined, spring tooth harrow, spike harrow, Ontario grain drill, Hench and Drumgold corn plow Wiard plow, Sattley corn planter, two Osborne mowers, Osborne horse rake, International gas engine, 3 H. P., portable steam engine, 6 H. P., threshing machine, grain fan, Quaker City feed mill, corn sheller, clover hauler, ladder, 20 ft. long, six horse wagon, and bed, four horse wagon, two horse wagon and bed, two sets of hay ladders, 30 feet long, buggy, buggy pole, bob sled, blacksmithing tools, anvil, vise, drill press, screw plates, hammers and tongs, bellows, lot of old iron, lot of harness and other articles too numerous to mention. Sale to begin at 11 o'clock sharp when attendance will be given and terms made known by Medora A. Horner, Beulah F. Bigham, Effie W. Benner and J. Bush Horner widow, children and heirs-in-law of David W. Horner, deceased."

At this time, the farm was bequeathed to the children of David W. Horner, J. Bush Horner bought out the shares of his two sisters during the 1920's and became the sole owner by 1930. In 1959, by his will and testament of 1952, J. Bush Horner bequeathed the farm in a life estate to his son, John B. Horner, the present owner, and upon his death, in equal shares to his children of which there are two. Approximately 16 disjointed acres of the 137 in the "home place" were sold off in 1985, leaving 121.8 the present acreage. This remainder has been in continuous ownership of the Horner family for over 200 years, through five generations and, upon the death of the present owner, to the sixth generation. this longevity has resulted in a number of recognitions the farm has received. In the 1970's, the farm land became a Century farm in the state of Pennsylvania for continuous ownership by the same family for over 100 years., and in 2005, it became a Bicentennial Farm for 200+ years of ownership. In 1986, the house was given a plaque award by Historic Gettysburg/Adams County as an exemplary example of historic restoration and the house is adorned with plaque No. 2 from the Adams County Historical Society for a property which was proven to have been in the Manor of Maske.

The farm has continually produced crops and livestock and even today, there is a regular crop rotation of pasture, hay, corn, wheat, barley and soybeans with 40-50 head of young cattle in the barn at all times. About 15 acres of the land is wooded and a prominent stream, Marsh Creek, flows through a corner of the property. Land immediately to the north has been subdivided into building lots and five and ten acres "farmettes". Less than a mile to the east there has arisen The Links of Gettysburg, a huge golf and residential development and less than a mile to the west, a 700 acre parcel is to be developed into a retirement community with TWO golf courses.

The Horner Farm has so far managed to resist the encroachment of urbanization. It remains an historic example of a family's love of the land and determination to maintain it relatively unspoiled, a homestead of significant proportions.

Horner Farm Physical Description

The Horner Homestead Farm is located adjacent to Marsh Creek in the extreme southern part of Cumberland Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania, within sight of the Mason/Dixon Line.. The farm(Adams County tax parcel # 09 f18-0015) consists of 121.8 acres out of the original 440 acres, and is surrounded mostly by other agricultural land. There are 100 acres of tillable land, the remainder being woodland, meadows and grassed waterways. The farmstead is located in the north central part of the property at the intersection of Mason Dixon and Horner Roads. It is improved with five buildings namely, an 1819 brick and frame Federal style single family dwelling, with a frame summerhouse, an 1840 Pennsylvania bank barn, a 1916 frame wagon shed and an 1969 non- contributing workshop/garage. All of the contributing buildings add to the farm's historical appearance and retain most of their original appearance. The land also continues to fulfill its agricultural function as it has continuously since the Horner family acquired it in 1802. The land and its improvements are a distinctive and historically significant example of agriculture and how it has been practiced in south central Pennsylvania for over 200 years.

The Horner Farm is an amazing rural setting made up of streams, fields, meadows, fences, woodlots and grassed waterways. A major County stream(Marsh Creek) flows through a corner of the property. Early in the farm's history, Indians paddled their canoes up and down this creek. A smaller stream, always known to the Horner family as "The Branch", bisects the property north and south as it meanders to its confluence with Marsh Creek. In recent years, all brush, honeysuckle, grapevines and other undergrowth has been removed from the banks of the Branch and this area is mowed, resulting in an incredibly beautiful and inspiring stream environment. Walnut trees line both sides of the Branch providing shade for walking, picnicing or just plain lingering. Trees also line the northern bank of Marsh Creek and at the western end of the property enlarge into a 10 acre woodlot made up primarily of mixed hardwoods. Most of the land is gently rolling except for that which lies adjacent to the northern parts of the Branch, where the slope is steeper, but still allows for farming in a regular crop rotation. Grassed waterways in all sloping fields prevent soil erosion. In the extreme northern part of the area near the Branch, just off Mason Dixon Road, lies the rotting trunk of a huge swamp oak tree which was cut down in 1940. It fell into a spring which, although now dry, furnished drinking water for the Horner family for over 100 years. The wording on one of the old deeds indicates that the south property line was accepted as the temporary line between Pennsylvania and Maryland until the Mason Dixon Line was established in 1766-67. In a meadow of the permanent pasture field can be seen a shallow pond where clay was dug for the bricks used in the construction of the manor house.

The focal point of the farm is the Horner Homestead House, L-shaped with the front building forming the base of the L and the ell or wing running at a right angle on the left side. The front building, in the Federal style has four large rooms, two on the first floor, two on the second floor, with a central entrance and hallway, the whole being perfectly symmetrical, all built over a crawl space. The eight windows on the first floor are nine over six sash, while the ten windows on the second floor are six over six, the whole also being perfectly symmetrical. The bricks are Flemish bond and are three courses thick on the sides, two courses thick on the ends, and rest on a stone foundation. The four rooms all have working fireplaces with chimneys, 2 fireplaces on a stack, all with decorative mantles and open flues. The center hallway is open all the way to the attic, which is full over the entire house, and lies beneath a metal shingle roof. One of the first floor rooms has a built in corner cupboard in the NE corner. The first floor rooms have finished pine plank floors which are original as is just about everything else except the front entrance door and the hallway floor which had to be replaced due to excessive deterioration. A closet and powder room were installed at the rear of the first floor hallway; the closet under the stairway is intact. A doorway was installed in the north side of one of the first floor rooms leading to a screened in porch which was added in the 1980's. Chair rails which had been removed, were installed according to the original design There is a door in one of the rooms leading into the ell or wing.

The second floor rooms have rough plank flooring and have been carpeted. One of the second floor rooms also has a closet. The west end of the front building has two windows, up and down, while the east end has but one, up and down, the second being negated by the built in closets. On the second floor there is also a door leading into the ell or wing.

The ell or wing has two rooms on the first floor and four smaller rooms on the second floor, and is built over a full cellar. It appears that the ell or wing had an exposed porch on the second floor which was closed in at some point with weatherboarding, thus enlarging the size of two of the upstairs rooms. A door on the first floor of the west side of the ell has been replaced with a window, while a door on the east side remains. There is a back stairway leading to a landing where doors lead off to each of the four second floor rooms. According to family oral tradition, most of the entire north wall was devoted to an open hearth fireplace which at some point by persons unknown, was eliminated and replaced with two windows and a door. The door has been covered over, while the two windows are still in place. A slate composition roof covers the ell and there is a covered porch on the east side of the first floor. A Victorian style porch was added to the west and north sides of the house, circa 1900, but this was removed in 1978 to give the house a more original appearance. The west faade shows four windows of six over six sash, while near the NW corner there are two substantially more narrow windows up and down. The ell has two non-functional chimneys while a new brick veneer chimney was constructed 30 years ago to vent the oil burner and wood stove. With minor changes: closed-in second floor porch, screened-in porch, shelter over the front entrance, the house will appear much the same as when it was constructed, the result being a dwelling with outstanding integrity. It continues to shelter the Horner family as it has for the past 186 years. The dimensions of the front building are approximately 50 by 25 feet and the ell approximately 25 by 25 feet.

The detached summer house is a frame building on stone foundation, which may or may not have been constructed at the same time as the main house, with a corner fireplace and stairway leading to a loft. It has a door on the ground level and five new windows in the old style replaced because of deterioration. The interior has been restored with plaster on original wood lath, original wainscoting and a newer wide plank pine floor. A door and stairway lead to the loft. The whole building has been covered with a cedar shingle roof in recent years. All outside weather-boarding is original. Its initial purpose was no doubt that of a standard summerhouse. In the intervening years it served as a creamery for butter and cheese making, for butchering, and a wash house. It now serves as a storage facility and a work place for computer, printer and other electronic equipment. The dimensions are 14 by 16 feet.

The non-contributing workshop/garage is a modern 26 by 52 foot structure constructed in 1969. There are three parking bays with a workshop area in one end. It is a frame structure with white aluminum siding and a metal roof. It has five windows and one smaller entrance door in addition to the 3 garage doors.

The 24 by 36 wagon shed is a typical rural outbuilding. Constructed in 1916, it housed a manure spreader, four-horse wagon, Fordson tractor and a burr mill used for grinding animal feed. There is a crib for corn storage on one side and a loft for additional corn storage. There are two small windows, one at each end of the loft. It had four large doors, 2 on each end. With the exception of one of these doors which was destroyed in a wind storm several years ago and not replaced, the structure is very much in its original state with its original metal roof.

The barn is a Pennsylvania bank barn with open forebay. It measures 100' 6" long, 45' deep and is several stories high. The superstructure consists of six symmetrical post and beam "bents" with consequent symmetrical gable-end silhouettes and forebay placement. The bent typology is typical of the region. There are five bays including two mows and three threshing floors. The entire understory is an open area for shelter of cattle. Most of the stone wall on the front side of the barn was removed decades ago for the accommodation of mechanized manure removal. The wall was replaced with heavy wooden posts anchored in concrete. Besides the mows and threshing floors on the upper level, there is a stone encased granary on the one end. There was originally a matching granary on the other end, but the stone wall collapsed generations ago and was not rebuilt, the open area being boarded up. This boarded up area had been replaced with tongue and groove clear cyprus boards and the six barn doors on the back side have been rebuilt along the lines of the original doors., with the original hinges. A notice painted on one of the original door braces notes that I. Lightner was the chief builder and the completion date was August 27, 1840. A 10 X 35 cement stave silo was an add-on in 1930, but has recently been removed. A new painted metal roof was installed in the late 1990's. All other parts of the barn are as originally constructed. The barn stands today for the same purposes for which it was originally constructed-to shelter livestock and for storage of hay, grain and farm equipment.

There were at various times buildings constructed for a variety of purposes, such as hog houses, chicken houses, smaller animal shelters, equipment storage buildings, wood houses, privies, etc. These were for the most part not well constructed buildings and not meant to enjoy long lives. As they deteriorated or outgrew their usefulness, they were not replaced.

The whole farmstead is pleasing to the eye and even the non-contributing workshop/garage is white trimmed in green, as are all of the outbuildings, and blends nicely into the whole.

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